It was (and is) popularly called the English Civil War, but a recent trend towards considering its wider contexts has encouraged some to brand it the War of the Three Kingdoms, a title that more explicitly reflects events in Scotland and Ireland. Hutton, R (1999). The poorly armed royalist foot soldiers relied on the cavalry for support. At a feast at Raglan Castle, home of the enormously wealthy Earl of Worcester, Charles was treated to an entertainment shot through with Welsh pride in their loyalty and British heritage. The petition was surmounted with three feathers and the legend ‘Ich Dien’, ‘I serve’ – the emblem of the Prince of Wales, whose initials were also included – further underscoring a proclamation of a distinctive Welshness.The document helps illustrate how Charles’s clear commitment to resisting religious reform and defending the status quo in the church encouraged Welsh support for his cause.

Guide to the Battlefields of Britain and Ireland. For example, in May 1642 the Venetian ambassador reported that “the people of the province of Wales have offered the king their services beseeching him to go and live in that corner of the kingdom”. In the early morning, Laugharne sent 500 infantry across the stream to attack Horton's centre, hoping to take the Parliamentarians by surprise inside the village. Events Pro-royalist risings occurred in both north and south Wales, and Kemeys’ death was part of this last throw of the royalist dice in Wales.Contemporaries recognised the country’s allegiance to the king, and one royalist newspaper at the time observed that: “Loyalty run[s] so in a bloud amongst the Welsh that it will be in vaine [for parliament] to attempt this last refuge of monarchy, which Providence seemes to have given in earnest for the restitution of the whole.”This was a wishful fantasy rather than practical politics, however, and the New Model Army crushed the 1648 risings. Constable, London. In the centre, high hedges hampered Horton's horsemen, but Okey's dragoons forced both Royalist wings back. Herbert's Cardiff Castle provided an important base for Parliamentary forces in South Wales.The Parliamentarians produced thousands of pamphlets in an attempt to persuade people to support their cause. Sir Nicholas Kemopys and Colonel Powell did the same at Chepstow and Tenby castles.
The rebellious Welsh forces suffered a devastating defeat at the battle of St Fagans in Glamorgan, an engagement involving around 11,000 men. In April 1648, Parliamentarian troops in Wales, who had not been paid for a long time and feared that they were about to be disbanded without their arrears of pay, staged a A stream known as the Nant Dowlais separated the two armies. Workers and tenants of large landowners who supports the royalist cause were often obliged to follow their master's example. Over 200 of Laugharne's men were killed and another 3,000 were taken prisoner. Civil War commander with arms and equipment, depicted on a stained glass window in Farndon, Cheshire : More Images - click any number below to view gallery images: 1: 2: The Civil Wars 1638 - 1660 . Gerard's commission extended the area formerly commanded by Lord Carbery to include Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire, thus enabling him to draw upon the resources of south Wales in his re-conquest of the west. So they can enslave the people... and establish taxes.

It reflected on the disturbing trend towards deriding the Welsh, and described how they were “disrespected and shamefully derided with ludibrious contempt more than any other countrey whatsoever”.The petition demanded the suppression of “this epidemicall derision of us,” which was seen as “nothing else but a scorning detestation to our known fidelity”. In March 1648 Colonel Poyer, governor of Pembroke Castle in Wales, refused to hand over the castle to his successor Colonel Fleming and declared for the King. The main problem was that these pamphlets were in English, a language that large numbers of the population did not understand.People's business interests also affected their political allegiance.

These sentiments were to the fore in a Welsh praise poem offered to a north Walian colonel during the civil wars, who was said to be fighting for the king in order to protect Wales from injustice, and to defend his country and the true faith.These positive impulses to support the king in Wales were fortified by a form of negative campaigning associated with the nascent parliamentary coalition, when a series of satirical pamphlets about the Welsh emerged from London presses between late 1641 and early 1643.
The village of Cheriton is noted for two reasons, it is the place where the famous chalk bed river, the Itchen springs, welling up imperceptibly in the fields and then flowing through the village. The fidelity in question was clearly Welsh affection for the king rather than parliament.It is difficult to assess 
the degree to which such evidence reflects the political sympathies of the ordinary man or woman in Wales.

This service being done, these poor wasted lands may be freed from the burden of the army.We have not got our guns and ammunition yet.


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